New South Wales in autumn 2016: Warm autumn breaks statewide records

New South Wales recorded its warmest autumn on record during 2016. The warmth was widespread, with most stations also recording the warmest autumn mean temperatures on record. Rainfall was below average for the State as a whole, with persistently dry conditions along the east coast.

  • Warmest autumn on record for statewide average maximum and mean temperatures
  • Persistently warm temperatures with few cold spells
  • Dry autumn for the east coast
  • Well above average sea surface temperatures

New South Wales recorded its warmest autumn mean temperature on record during 2016, with the statewide average mean temperature 2.21 °C above the historical average and 0.53 °C above the previous record, set in 2007. The autumn average daily maximum temperature was also the warmest on record for the State, while the average daily minimum temperature was the second-warmest on record behind autumn 1989. The warmth was widespread, with most stations recording their warmest autumn on record. Widespread records were also set for autumn average daily maximum and minimum temperatures, although few records were set for high daily extremes.

The record-high autumn temperatures were a result of persistent warmth throughout the season, with the warmest March, second-warmest April, and sixth-warmest May on record. There were several notable warm spells, with many stations breaking records for consecutive hot days in the first half of March and late-season temperature extremes in early April, although few autumn extreme daily temperature records were set. However, the season was most notable for a lack of cold spells, with the only significant cold snap occurring during the last week of May.

The record warm temperatures in New South Wales were part of the warmest autumn on record for Australia. More details on the causes and extent of the anomalous warmth are given in Special Climate Statement 56: Australia's warmest autumn on record.

Rainfall for autumn was 28.6% below the historical average, with average to above average totals in inland New South Wales but well below average rainfall across much of the east coast. Some areas of the east coast such as Grafton and Yamba recorded their driest autumn in over thirty years. This spatial pattern was apparent throughout the season, but particularly notable in May, when inland areas of the State recorded well above average rainfall. The most significant rainfall events in inland NSW were associated with a cold front over 30 April-1 May and a strong cut-off low and associated front that produced widespread heavy rain in inland NSW over 8-10 May.

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Extremes in autumn 2016
Hottest day 43.0 °C at Menindee Post Office on 2 Mar
43.0 °C at Pooncarie Mail Agency on 6 Mar
43.0 °C at Pooncarie Mail Agency on 8 Mar
Warmest days on average 31.1 °C at Mungindi Post Office
Coolest days on average 10.5 °C at Thredbo AWS
Coldest day -2.5 °C at Thredbo AWS on 27 May
Coldest night -9.7 °C at Cooma Airport AWS on 30 May
Coolest nights on average 3.0 °C at Perisher Valley AWS
Warmest nights on average 18.8 °C at Byron Bay (Cape Byron AWS)
Warmest night 30.5 °C at White Cliffs AWS on 10 Mar
Warmest on average overall 23.3 °C at Tibooburra Airport
Coolest on average overall 6.9 °C at Thredbo AWS
Wettest overall 520.0 mm at Boat Harbour (Rous River)
Driest overall 25.6 mm at Richmond RAAF
Wettest day 130.0 mm at Chillingham on 2 Mar
Strongest wind gust 135 km/h at Thredbo AWS on 18 Mar

Maps
ObservedAnomalyDecile rank
Total
rainfall
Map of Rainfall totals Map of Percentage of normal rainfall Map of Rainfall deciles
Mean
daily
maximum
temperatures
Map of Mean maximum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean maximum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean maximum temperature
Mean
daily
minimum
temperatures
Map of Mean minimum temperature Map of Anomaly in mean minimum temperature Map of Decile rank of mean minimum temperature

Click on a map to show it full size in a pop-up window


Record highest autumn daily rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Wanaaring (Owen Downs) 88.0 on 9 May 86.4 on 25 Mar 1969 61

Highest autumn total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
higher
Average for
autumn
Wanaaring (Owen Downs) 116.0 145.4 in 1990 57.4
Broken Hill (Koralta) 114.0 218.1 in 1989* 48.5
Hay (Bedarbidgal) 136.4 148.6 in 1990* 76.7

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.


Record lowest autumn total rainfall
New record
(mm)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Kurrajong Heights (Bells Line of Road) 66.0 77.2 in 1991 143 339.9
Elderslie 34.0 41.8 in 1986 85 192.0
Pokolbin (Jacksons Hill) 36.6 43.8 in 1986 54 208.4
Mount Wilson (Clarine) 80.2 98.2 in 2006 42 343.7
Killawarra (Uralba) 66.8 68.6 in 1986 32 301.9
Upper Pappinbarra (Hillcrest) 103.8 124.6 in 2008 31 360.8
Lord Howe Island Aero 235.6 238.8 in 2008 28 419.1
Cessnock Airport AWS 45.0 70.0 in 2004 25 176.2
Putty Tea Rooms 45.8 53.5 in 1965 24 167.7
Richmond RAAF 25.6 32.6 in 2006 22 178.7
Penrith Lakes AWS 36.2 37.0 in 2006 21 159.2

Lowest autumn total rainfall for at least 20 years
Observed
(mm)
Most recent
lower
Average for
autumn
Springwood (Valley Heights) 62.6 61.1 in 1902* 287.0
Kangaroo Valley (Main Rd) 89.2 35.4 in 1957* 357.2
Cooranbong (Avondale) 99.0 75.9 in 1965* 340.6
Yamba Pilot Station 252.8 208.4 in 1970 501.5
Paterson Post Office 80.4 61.7 in 1965* 297.8
Bettowynd (Condry) 31.0 19.8 in 1965* 206.3
Forster - Tuncurry Marine Rescue 118.6 68.5 in 1973 393.5
Tabulam Post Office 106.0 42.3 in 1973 260.6
Kyogle Post Office 149.5 120.7 in 1973* 348.0
Meldrum (Coolawarrah) 160.0 157.8 in 1968* 494.6
Grafton Research Stn 97.0 74.9 in 1942* 271.4
Paterson (Tocal AWS) 75.8 58.6 in 1986 274.3
Nelson Bay (Nelson Head) 156.0 145.0 in 1970* 397.5
Nowendoc (Green Hills) 131.0 76.2 in 1986* 258.1
Upper Chichester (Simmonds) 130.4 122.2 in 1986* 376.9
Branxton (Dalwood Vineyard) 57.0 =57.0 in 1986* 219.9
Gloucester Post Office 102.4 42.0 in 1986* 273.7
Hunter Springs (Wondecla) 100.8 63.2 in 1986* 256.8
Lithgow (Cooerwull) 63.8 50.9 in 1954* 182.8
Krambach (Tipperary) 102.0 82.3 in 1986* 334.6
Angledool (Angledool Station) 36.2 20.9 in 1993 107.4
Craven (Longview) 95.6 75.4 in 1986* 299.8
Old Koreelah (McPherson) 72.0 50.6 in 1991* 218.6
Mount Boyce AWS 68.8 25.4 in 1996 229.3
Smiths Lake (Patsys Flat Road) 198.7 189.0 in 1993* 447.2

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a lower value has gone unreported.


Record highest autumn temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Thredbo Village 28.9 on 6 Mar 28.5 on 8 Mar 1983 47 14.0
Albury Airport AWS 38.5 on 7 Mar = 38.5 on 12 Mar 2006 24 22.5
Cabramurra SMHEA AWS 28.4 on 8 Mar 27.8 on 15 Mar 2008 20 12.9

Record highest autumn mean daily maximum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Sydney (Observatory Hill) 24.8 24.5 in 2014 157 22.2
Bathurst Agricultural Station 22.9 = 22.9 in 2005 91 20.1
Mungindi Post Office 31.1 30.3 in 1938 91 27.5
Katoomba (Murri St) 20.1 19.0 in 1938 87 16.7
Hume Reservoir 24.3 24.2 in 2007 83 21.8
South West Rocks (Smoky Cape Lighthouse) 26.5 25.7 in 2014 77 23.9
Norfolk Island Aero 24.1 23.7 in 1990 76 22.6
Sydney Airport AMO 25.1 24.4 in 1958 76 22.8
Trangie Research Station AWS 27.6 = 27.6 in 1923 71 24.5
Williamtown RAAF 25.6 25.1 in 1973 65 23.4
Gunnedah Resource Centre 27.3 26.7 in 1973 64 24.8
Inverell Research Centre 26.4 25.6 in 1996 58 23.3
Dunedoo Post Office 26.2 25.9 in 1980 56 24.0
Taralga Post Office 21.0 20.1 in 2007 56 18.5
Prospect Reservoir 25.9 24.6 in 1980 50 23.4
Barraba Post Office 27.6 27.4 in 1973 49 24.8
Tumbarumba Post Office 22.0 21.9 in 1980 49 20.0
Bankstown Airport AWS 26.0 24.9 in 2014 47 23.5
Parramatta North (Masons Drive) 25.5 24.7 in 1998 46 23.5
Yarras (Mount Seaview) 26.3 26.0 in 1980 46 24.1
Tabulam (Muirne) 24.1 23.8 in 1998 45 21.9
Tocumwal Airport 25.0 24.6 in 1985 45 23.1
Thredbo Village 15.9 15.2 in 2007 43 14.0
Gulgong Post Office 25.4 25.1 in 2005 42 23.3
Woolbrook (Danglemah Road) 23.5 23.1 in 1980 42 20.9
Cooma Visitors Centre 21.7 21.6 in 1980 41 19.5
Montague Island Lighthouse 21.8 21.6 in 2014 41 20.3
Paterson (Tocal AWS) 26.6 25.6 in 1973 41 24.0
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 22.8 22.0 in 1980 40 19.8
Goulburn TAFE 21.9 21.6 in 1986 40 19.9
Camden Airport AWS 26.1 25.5 in 1980 39 23.7
Griffith Airport AWS 26.3 26.2 in 2005 39 23.9
Guyra Hospital 20.6 19.1 in 2004 30 17.8
Narooma (Marine Rescue) 22.5 22.0 in 2014 29 20.9
Lord Howe Island Aero 24.6 24.1 in 2015 27 23.2
Bathurst Airport AWS 22.8 22.1 in 2005 24 20.5
Bega AWS 23.8 23.4 in 2010 24 22.1
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 21.4 20.7 in 1998 24 19.3
Cessnock Airport AWS 26.6 25.4 in 1998 24 23.9
Goulburn Airport AWS 21.9 21.3 in 2005 24 19.8
Mount Boyce AWS 19.5 17.9 in 1997 24 16.9
Mudgee Airport AWS 25.0 24.4 in 2005 24 22.6
Nullo Mountain AWS 18.6 18.0 in 1998 24 16.5
Scone Airport AWS 27.5 25.3 in 1998 24 24.1
Tamworth Airport AWS 27.4 26.7 in 2005 24 25.0
Ulladulla AWS 22.5 22.4 in 1998 24 21.3
Wanaaring Post Office 30.4 30.1 in 2005 24 27.7
Young Airport 24.3 = 24.3 in 2005 24 22.5
Ballina Airport AWS 26.3 25.9 in 1998 23 24.8
Dubbo Airport AWS 26.4 26.3 in 2005 23 24.5
Albury Airport AWS 24.9 24.3 in 2007 22 22.5
Richmond RAAF 26.8 25.1 in 1998 22 23.8
Walgett Airport AWS 29.3 28.8 in 2002 22 27.3
Casino Airport AWS 28.0 27.3 in 1998 21 25.6
Condobolin Airport AWS 26.8 26.6 in 2005 21 24.5
Mangrove Mountain AWS 24.3 22.7 in 2014 21 21.6
Norah Head AWS 24.4 23.6 in 2007 21 22.6
Armidale Airport AWS 21.9 20.8 in 2005 20 19.4
Badgerys Creek AWS 26.3 24.6 in 2006 20 23.7
Canterbury Racecourse AWS 25.0 24.2 in 2014 20 23.2
Grafton Research Stn 28.2 26.7 in 1922 20 25.5
Moree Aero 29.3 28.3 in 2007 20 26.8
Penrith Lakes AWS 26.7 25.1 in 1998 20 24.3
Port Macquarie Airport AWS 25.8 24.9 in 2014 20 24.0

Highest autumn mean daily maximum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
autumn
Yamba Pilot Station 26.1 =26.1 in 1897 24.0
Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS 24.0 24.2 in 1906* 22.5
Moruya Heads Pilot Station 22.7 =22.7 in 1907* 21.3
Bombala (Therry Street) 21.3 22.2 in 1923* 18.6
Lake Victoria Storage 25.9 26.4 in 1923* 23.7
Corowa Airport 25.6 26.2 in 1938* 22.8
Quirindi Post Office 27.2 27.3 in 1986* 24.9
Brewarrina Hospital 29.5 29.8 in 1986* 27.4
Thredbo AWS 10.5 10.6 in 1980* 9.1

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.


Record highest autumn daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Sydney Airport AMO 23.4 on 4 Mar = 23.4 on 5 Mar 1980 78 14.2
Tocumwal Airport 25.1 on 6 Mar 24.2 on 13 Mar 1985 46 10.0
Wanaaring Post Office 27.6 on 14 Mar 26.6 on 3 Mar 2009 25 13.0
Albury Airport AWS 24.6 on 10 Mar 21.4 on 12 Mar 1999 24 8.8
Richmond RAAF 22.7 on 11 Mar 22.0 on 19 Mar 2000 22 11.6
Narrandera Airport AWS 24.2 on 6 Mar 22.5 on 1 Mar 2015 21 10.0
Penrith Lakes AWS 23.3 on 11 Mar 23.2 on 17 Mar 2000 21 13.0

Record lowest autumn temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Scone SCS -1.1 on 30 May -1.0 on 29 May 1987 51 11.3
Murwillumbah (Bray Park) 2.2 on 25 May 2.7 on 30 May 2000 41 15.4
Cooma Airport AWS -9.7 on 30 May -9.5 on 16 May 1999 25 3.9
Mangrove Mountain AWS -0.3 on 30 May 0.8 on 15 May 2011 22 12.1
Richmond RAAF -2.1 on 30 May -1.4 on 16 May 2011 22 11.6
Penrith Lakes AWS 2.0 on 30 May 2.1 on 31 May 2004 21 13.0

Record highest autumn mean daily minimum temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Sydney (Observatory Hill) 16.6 16.5 in 1989 157 14.6
Katoomba (Murri St) 10.8 10.3 in 1989 87 8.8
South West Rocks (Smoky Cape Lighthouse) 18.4 17.8 in 1958 77 16.5
Norfolk Island Aero 19.3 19.2 in 1955 76 17.7
Sydney Airport AMO 16.4 16.2 in 1989 76 14.2
Gunnedah Resource Centre 14.4 14.3 in 1998 65 12.7
Cobar MO 15.1 = 15.1 in 2007 53 13.0
Tabulam (Muirne) 14.5 = 14.5 in 1989 45 13.4
Montague Island Lighthouse 16.7 16.5 in 2014 42 15.1
Thredbo Village 4.1 4.0 in 2014 39 2.0
Guyra Hospital 8.4 8.2 in 1990 30 6.9
Nelson Bay (Nelson Head) 17.4 17.3 in 2014 29 15.0
Lord Howe Island Aero 19.5 19.1 in 1998 27 18.1
Broken Hill Airport AWS 13.4 = 13.4 in 2007 26 11.4
Bathurst Airport AWS 8.4 8.3 in 2007 24 6.6
Bega AWS 10.5 10.4 in 2003 24 9.3
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 8.0 7.8 in 1998 24 6.1
Cooma Airport AWS 5.3 = 5.3 in 2014 24 3.9
Goulburn Airport AWS 8.0 7.6 in 2007 24 6.0
Mount Boyce AWS 10.1 9.7 in 2007 24 8.6
Mudgee Airport AWS 10.0 9.9 in 1998 24 8.1
Nullo Mountain AWS 9.9 9.6 in 1998 24 8.5
Ulladulla AWS 15.5 15.1 in 2014 24 14.0
Wanaaring Post Office 15.8 15.1 in 2000 24 13.0
Albury Airport AWS 11.1 10.9 in 2007 22 8.8
Cobar Airport AWS 14.0 13.7 in 2007 22 11.4
Walgett Airport AWS 13.6 13.5 in 2007 22 11.8
Condobolin Airport AWS 12.9 11.4 in 2014 21 9.9
Norah Head AWS 16.9 16.6 in 1998 21 15.9
Armidale Airport AWS 9.1 8.9 in 2014 20 7.7
Moree Aero 14.9 14.7 in 2014 20 12.5
Penrith Lakes AWS 14.2 13.9 in 1998 20 13.0

Highest autumn mean daily minimum temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
autumn
Taralga Post Office 8.0 8.1 in 1968* 6.4
Menindee Post Office 13.8 15.0 in 1974* 11.2
Corowa Airport 11.7 11.8 in 1974* 9.0
Goulburn TAFE 9.8 10.6 in 1989 7.9
Moruya Heads Pilot Station 14.0 14.3 in 1989 12.2
Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS 16.9 17.0 in 1989 15.2
Parramatta North (Masons Drive) 13.8 14.0 in 1989 12.9
Tocumwal Airport 11.8 12.4 in 1989 10.0
Tumbarumba Post Office 7.8 8.4 in 1989 5.4
Wagga Wagga AMO 11.6 12.4 in 1989 9.5
Yamba Pilot Station 17.7 18.1 in 1989 16.3
Bathurst Agricultural Station 8.2 8.9 in 1990 6.9
Hume Reservoir 12.8 13.6 in 1989* 10.3
Inverell Research Centre 12.0 12.1 in 1990 11.0
Thredbo AWS 3.2 3.3 in 1974* 1.6
Trangie Research Station AWS 13.2 14.1 in 1989* 11.4
Griffith Airport AWS 12.4 12.5 in 1988* 10.5
Lake Victoria Storage 12.4 12.5 in 1990* 10.8
Bombala AWS 6.6 7.0 in 1995 5.4
Grafton Research Stn 15.4 15.5 in 1919* 14.1

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.


Record highest autumn mean temperature
New record
(°C)
Old
record
Years of
record
Average for
autumn
Sydney (Observatory Hill) 20.7 20.3 in 2014 157 18.4
Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS 20.4 20.3 in 1878 151 18.8
Quirindi Post Office 19.1 19.0 in 1998 94 17.0
Bathurst Agricultural Station 15.6 15.5 in 1923 91 13.5
Mungindi Post Office 22.9 22.4 in 2007 90 20.3
Bombala (Therry Street) 13.9 13.7 in 1968 89 11.9
Katoomba (Murri St) 15.3 14.7 in 1938 87 12.7
Hillston Airport 19.3 19.2 in 1914 83 17.6
Hume Reservoir 18.5 18.3 in 2007 83 16.0
Lake Victoria Storage 19.2 18.5 in 2014 80 17.2
South West Rocks (Smoky Cape Lighthouse) 22.5 21.7 in 2014 77 20.2
Norfolk Island Aero 21.7 21.3 in 1998 76 20.2
Sydney Airport AMO 20.7 20.2 in 2014 76 18.5
Wagga Wagga AMO 18.3 17.9 in 2007 74 16.0
Williamtown RAAF 19.9 19.5 in 1958 65 18.3
Gunnedah Resource Centre 20.9 20.3 in 1958 64 18.8
Inverell Research Centre 19.2 18.4 in 1998 58 17.1
Dunedoo Post Office 19.1 18.9 in 2007 56 17.0
Condobolin Ag Research Stn 19.7 19.5 in 2007 52 17.5
Prospect Reservoir 19.9 19.2 in 1980 50 18.2
Tumbarumba Post Office 15.0 14.6 in 2007 49 12.7
Bankstown Airport AWS 19.8 19.1 in 2014 47 18.1
Parramatta North (Masons Drive) 19.7 19.2 in 2007 46 18.2
Yarras (Mount Seaview) 19.8 19.7 in 1989 46 18.3
Tabulam (Muirne) 19.2 19.1 in 1998 45 17.6
Tocumwal Airport 18.2 17.9 in 1988 45 16.5
Oberon (Springbank) 13.8 13.3 in 1980 43 11.4
Woolbrook (Danglemah Road) 15.4 15.0 in 1989 42 13.3
Montague Island Lighthouse 19.3 19.1 in 2014 41 17.7
Paterson (Tocal AWS) 20.1 19.6 in 1998 41 18.3
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 15.8 15.4 in 1980 40 13.9
Camden Airport AWS 18.9 18.5 in 1998 39 17.3
Goulburn TAFE 15.9 15.1 in 1998 39 13.9
Griffith Airport AWS 19.4 19.1 in 2007 39 17.2
Thredbo Village 10.1 9.2 in 1989 39 7.9
Thredbo AWS 6.9 = 6.9 in 1980 32 5.3
Guyra Hospital 14.5 13.4 in 2007 30 12.3
Narooma (Marine Rescue) 18.3 18.2 in 2014 28 16.8
Nelson Bay (Nelson Head) 20.9 20.6 in 2014 28 19.2
Lord Howe Island Aero 22.0 21.5 in 1998 27 20.7
Broken Hill Airport AWS 19.5 = 19.5 in 2005 26 17.7
Bathurst Airport AWS 15.6 14.9 in 2007 24 13.5
Bega AWS 17.1 16.7 in 2014 24 15.7
Bombala AWS 13.4 13.1 in 1998 24 11.7
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 14.7 14.3 in 1998 24 12.7
Cooma Airport AWS 12.7 = 12.7 in 1998 24 11.0
Goulburn Airport AWS 15.0 14.3 in 2007 24 12.9
Mount Boyce AWS 14.8 13.7 in 2007 24 12.8
Mudgee Airport AWS 17.5 16.8 in 1998 24 15.3
Nullo Mountain AWS 14.3 13.8 in 1998 24 12.5
Scone Airport AWS 19.5 18.5 in 1998 24 17.2
Tamworth Airport AWS 19.4 18.8 in 1998 24 17.5
Ulladulla AWS 18.9 18.7 in 2014 24 17.6
Ballina Airport AWS 21.2 20.8 in 2015 23 20.0
Albury Airport AWS 18.0 17.6 in 2007 22 15.6
Cessnock Airport AWS 19.2 18.8 in 1998 22 17.4
Cobar Airport AWS 20.7 20.4 in 2007 22 18.4
Walgett Airport AWS 21.5 21.1 in 2007 22 19.5
Condobolin Airport AWS 19.9 18.8 in 2005 21 17.2
Mangrove Mountain AWS 18.4 17.9 in 1998 21 16.8
Norah Head AWS 20.7 20.0 in 2014 21 19.2
Richmond RAAF 19.5 19.0 in 1998 21 17.7
Armidale Airport AWS 15.5 14.4 in 2007 20 13.5
Badgerys Creek AWS 19.3 18.6 in 1998 20 17.5
Canterbury Racecourse AWS 19.2 18.9 in 1998 20 18.0
Grafton Research Stn 21.9 20.8 in 2014 20 19.8
Moree Aero 22.1 21.3 in 2007 20 19.7
Penrith Lakes AWS 20.4 19.5 in 1998 20 18.6
Port Macquarie Airport AWS 19.8 19.5 in 2014 20 18.9

Highest autumn mean temperature for at least 20 years
Observed
(°C)
Most recent
higher
Average for
autumn
Moruya Heads Pilot Station 18.4 21.1 in 1876* 16.8
Yamba Pilot Station 21.9 =21.9 in 1892 20.2
Menindee Post Office 20.8 21.1 in 1923* 18.5
Trangie Research Station AWS 20.4 20.5 in 1938* 17.9
Cooma Visitors Centre 13.4 13.5 in 1989* 11.9

* note: there are gaps in the historical record at this site, so it is possible a higher value has gone unreported.


Summary statistics for autumn 2016
Maximum temperatures
(°C)
Minimum temperatures
(°C)
Rainfall
(millimetres)
Mean for
autumn
2016
Diff
from
average
Highest for
autumn
2016
Mean for
autumn
2016
Diff
from
average
Lowest for
autumn
2016
Total for
autumn
2016
Average
for
autumn
Rank of
autumn
2016
Fraction of
autumn
average
Western (Far Northwest) (district 46)
Fowlers Gap AWS 27.7 +1.7 40.9 2 Mar 14.9 +2.4 3.7 24 May 70.6 56.0 average 126%
Tibooburra Airport 29.4 +2.0 40.9 1 Mar 17.2 +2.4 6.4 30 May 68.6 49.5 high 139%
White Cliffs AWS 28.3 +1.8 40.7 2 Mar 16.6 +2.7 7.2 25 May 117.2 80.5 high 146%
Wilcannia Aerodrome AWS 28.4 +1.8 41.9 2 Mar 13.9 +2.2 3.3 24 May 75.2 65.5 average 115%
Western (Lower Darling) (district 47)
Broken Hill Airport AWS 25.6 +1.6 40.4 2 Mar 13.4 +2.0 3.8 29 May 104.2 62.5 high 167%
Lake Victoria Storage 25.9 +2.2 41.5 6 Mar 12.4 +1.6 3.5 29 May 45.0 57.1 average 79%
Menindee Post Office 27.8 +2.1 43.0 2 Mar 13.8 +2.6 3.1 30 May 111.7 57.5 high 194%
Pooncarie Mail Agency 27.5 +1.6 43.0 8 Mar 13.1 +2.0 2.6 29 May 94.1 62.2 high 151%
Western (Upper Darling) (district 48)
Bourke Airport AWS 29.6 +1.9 40.4 3 Mar 15.4 +2.1 2.9 24 May 60.8 89.5 average 68%
Brewarrina Hospital 29.5 +2.1 38.7 3 Mar 14.7 +1.9 2.4 25 May 54.4 100.5 average 54%
Cobar Airport AWS 27.3 +1.8 39.5 3 Mar 14.0 +2.6 2.4 31 May
Cobar MO 27.0 +1.9 39.4 3 Mar 15.1 +2.1 3.6 31 May 187.6 95.7 high 196%
Lightning Ridge Visitors Information Cen 29.6 +1.9 37.2 14 Mar     2.4 28 May 56.9 95.1 low 60%
Wanaaring Post Office 30.4 +2.7 41.7 13 Mar 15.8 +2.8 4.4 24 May 111.7 67.4 high 166%
Western (Southwest Plains) (district 49)
Ivanhoe Aerodrome AWS 27.5 +2.1 41.0 6 Mar 15.0 +2.9 4.3 29 May 114.4 64.7 high 177%
Central Western Plains (South) (district 50)
Condobolin Ag Research Stn 26.4 +1.8 38.0 3 Mar 12.9 +2.5 2.9 25 May 103.4 106.0 average 98%
Condobolin Airport AWS 26.8 +2.3 38.7 3 Mar 12.9 +3.0 1.1 31 May 106.6 79.8 average 134%
Peak Hill Post Office 26.6 +1.8 37.5 12 Mar 14.5 +2.1 2.4 30 May 154.1 137.1 high 112%
West Wyalong Airport AWS 25.7 +1.8 38.3 5 Mar 11.7 +1.8 1.6 31 May 108.0 85.3 high 127%
Central Western Plains (North) (district 51)
Coonamble Airport AWS 27.7 +1.5 38.1 3 Mar 14.0 +2.1 0.9 31 May 126.6 123.2 average 103%
Trangie Research Station AWS 27.6 +3.1 38.9 3 Mar 13.2 +1.8 0.8 25 May 87.4 124.5 average 70%
Northwest Plains (West) (district 52)
Mungindi Post Office 31.1 +3.6 38.9 14 Mar 15.0 +2.0 2.5 30 May 83.8 116.2 average 72%
Walgett Airport AWS 29.3 +2.0 38.1 3 Mar 13.6 +1.8 0.2 30 May 58.4 83.9 low 70%
Northwest Plains (East) (district 53)
Moree Aero 29.3 +2.5 36.3 2 Mar 14.9 +2.4 1.5 25 May
Northwest Slopes (North) (district 54)
Barraba Post Office 27.6 +2.8 36.4 8 Mar 9.5 +1.2 -3.0 25 May 116.6 136.1 average 86%
Narrabri Airport AWS 28.9 +2.3 36.9 7 Mar 13.9 +2.0 0.8 25 May 78.8 105.3 low 75%
Northwest Slopes (South) (district 55)
Gunnedah Airport AWS 28.2 +2.2 36.8 3 Mar 12.3 +2.0 -1.6 30 May 53.4 90.7 average 59%
Gunnedah Resource Centre 27.3 +2.5 36.0 3 Mar 14.4 +1.7 1.7 30 May 115.4 125.5 average 92%
Quirindi Post Office 27.2 +2.3 36.0 13 Mar 11.1 +1.9 -2.0 30 May 76.4 139.0 low 55%
Tamworth Airport AWS 27.4 +2.4 35.7 3 Mar 11.5 +1.4 -0.6 30 May 87.6 102.7 average 85%
Woolbrook (Danglemah Road) 23.5 +2.6 32.5 3 Mar 7.3 +1.6 -7.5 25 May 109.3 140.0 average 78%
Northern Tablelands (West) (district 56)
Armidale (Tree Group Nursery) 22.9 +2.8 30.4 2 Mar 7.5 +1.1 -7.0 30 May 100.8 136.5 low 74%
Armidale Airport AWS 21.9 +2.5 29.2 2 Mar 9.1 +1.4 -5.0 30 May 115.8 133.2 average 87%
Glen Innes Ag Research Stn 22.8 +3.0 30.5 10 Mar 8.8 +0.8 -4.0 30 May 117.8 160.1 low 74%
Glen Innes Airport AWS 23.1 +2.7 30.1 10 Mar 7.5 +1.0 -7.7 25 May 127.0 170.6 average 74%
Guyra Hospital 20.6 +2.8 28.4 2 Mar 8.4 +1.5 -4.0 30 May 124.2 173.5 low 72%
Inverell Research Centre 26.4 +3.1 33.3 2 Mar 12.0 +1.0 -1.3 30 May 72.8 156.5 low 47%
Tenterfield (Federation Park) 23.1 +1.7 30.0 18 Mar 9.0 +0.4 -5.3 25 May 149.0 176.4 average 84%
Northern Tablelands (East) (district 57)
Tabulam (Muirne) 24.1 +2.2 30.2 7 Apr 14.5 +1.1 5.8 30 May 170.2 351.6 v low 48%
Upper North Coast (district 58)
Ballina Airport AWS 26.3 +1.5 30.0 10 Apr 16.0 +0.8 4.3 26 May 358.6 575.2 low 62%
Byron Bay (Cape Byron AWS) 25.2 +1.3 29.5 6 Mar 18.8 +1.3 11.1 29 May 432.2 390.5 average 111%
Casino Airport AWS 28.0 +2.4 32.5 18 Mar 14.1 0.0 1.0 26 May 191.4 283.8 low 67%
Evans Head RAAF Bombing Range AWS 26.2 +1.8 31.3 2 Apr 16.9 +0.7 6.9 28 May 342.8 441.3 average 78%
Grafton Airport AWS 27.4   32.7 18 Mar 14.2   0.6 26 May
Grafton Research Stn 28.2 +2.7 34.7 18 Mar 15.4 +1.3 2.7 26 May 97.0 271.4 v low 36%
Lismore Airport AWS 27.2 +1.5 31.7 10 Apr 14.2 +0.6 0.6 25 May 187.8 321.4 v low 58%
Murwillumbah (Bray Park) 27.3 +1.4 31.2 10 Apr 15.8 +0.4 2.2 25 May 426.0 504.2 average 84%
Yamba Pilot Station 26.1 +2.1 29.6 3 Mar 17.7 +1.4 8.4 30 May 252.8 501.5 v low 50%
Lower North Coast (district 59)
Coffs Harbour Airport 25.9   31.5 18 Mar 15.7   2.7 29 May 190.6
Dorrigo (Old Coramba Rd) 21.8 +2.1 28.0 14 Mar 11.5 +1.0 1.0 28 May 189.6 508.6 v low 37%
Kempsey Airport AWS 27.1 +2.2 33.2 2 Apr 12.6 0.0 -0.5 25 May 64.6 286.3 v low 23%
South West Rocks (Smoky Cape Lighthouse) 26.5 +2.6 30.9 12 Mar 18.4 +1.9 12.0 29 May 154.6 484.6 v low 32%
Manning (district 60)
Forster - Tuncurry Marine Rescue 24.9 +1.5 28.0 23 May 16.0 +1.1 7.0 30 May 118.6 393.5 v low 30%
Port Macquarie Airport AWS 25.8 +1.8 32.3 2 Apr 13.9 +0.2 0.2 25 May 149.6 425.5 v low 35%
Taree Airport AWS 26.1 +2.0 32.7 2 Apr 13.6 +0.2 2.0 30 May 55.8 348.7 v low 16%
Yarras (Mount Seaview) 26.3 +2.2 33.0 2 Apr 13.3 +0.8 2.8 30 May 293.4 492.9 low 60%
Hunter (district 61)
Cessnock Airport AWS 26.6 +2.7 35.2 6 Apr 11.8 +0.9 -3.5 30 May 45.0 176.2 lowest 26%
Cooranbong (Lake Macquarie AWS) 25.5   34.6 6 Apr 11.9   -0.8 30 May 90.8
Gosford AWS 24.7   34.1 6 Apr 14.3   4.8 31 May 220.2
Maitland Visitors Centre 27.1 +2.7 36.0 6 Apr 13.9 +1.7 0.1 31 May 60.2 238.5 v low 25%
Mangrove Mountain AWS 24.3 +2.7 33.5 9 Mar 12.5 +0.4 -0.3 30 May 126.4 296.0 low 43%
Merriwa (Roscommon) 25.8   35.7 10 Mar 10.8   -2.8 30 May 113.8 124.1 average 92%
Murrurundi Gap AWS 23.1 +2.6 33.0 9 Mar 12.6 +1.6 3.3 30 May 98.4 139.8 low 70%
Nelson Bay (Nelson Head) 24.5 +1.1 30.5 2 Apr 17.4 +2.4 9.1 30 May 156.0 397.5 v low 39%
Newcastle Nobbys Signal Station AWS 24.0 +1.5 32.1 2 Apr 16.9 +1.7 7.6 30 May 167.0 351.9 low 47%
Norah Head AWS 24.4 +1.8 30.0 2 Apr 16.9 +1.0 7.2 30 May 221.6 383.7 v low 58%
Paterson (Tocal AWS) 26.6 +2.6 36.3 6 Apr 13.6 +1.0 2.2 30 May 75.8 274.3 v low 28%
Scone Airport AWS 27.5 +3.4 36.6 9 Mar 11.5 +1.3 -2.0 30 May 59.8 124.5 low 48%
Singleton STP 26.9 +2.3 35.3 6 Apr 12.4 +1.5 -2.1 31 May 78.7 155.8 low 51%
Williamtown RAAF 25.6 +2.2 34.0 6 Apr 14.2 +1.0 3.5 31 May 197.2 342.2 low 58%
Central Tablelands (North) (district 62)
Gulgong Post Office 25.4 +2.1 36.5 3 Mar     -2.5 30 May 105.1 143.8 average 73%
Mudgee Airport AWS 25.0 +2.4 35.6 3 Mar 10.0 +1.9 -3.7 30 May 109.6 126.9 average 86%
Nullo Mountain AWS 18.6 +2.1 28.6 3 Mar 9.9 +1.4 1.2 29 May 181.2 204.3 average 89%
Central Tablelands (South) (district 63)
Bathurst Agricultural Station 22.9 +2.8 35.2 9 Mar 8.2 +1.3 -3.9 30 May 101.5 135.2 average 75%
Bathurst Airport AWS 22.8 +2.3 34.5 3 Mar 8.4 +1.8 -4.0 30 May 103.6 122.8 average 84%
Katoomba (Murri St) 20.1 +3.4 30.4 9 Mar 10.8 +2.0 0.9 30 May 138.2 388.5 low 36%
Lithgow (Cooerwull) 20.8   30.9 7 Mar 8.0   -7.7 30 May 63.8 182.8 v low 35%
Mount Boyce AWS 19.5 +2.6 29.7 9 Mar 10.1 +1.5 -1.2 30 May 68.8 229.3 v low 30%
Oberon (Springbank) 20.0 +2.8 31.5 7 Mar 7.4 +1.8 -4.9 30 May 109.6 183.8 low 60%
Orange Airport AWS 20.8 +2.4 31.8 5 Mar 7.4 +1.5 -1.8 30 May 197.0 161.7 average 122%
Springwood (Valley Heights) 24.2 +2.2 34.3 6 Apr 13.8 +1.6 3.9 30 May 62.6 287.0 v low 22%
Central Western Slopes (North) (district 64)
Coonabarabran Airport AWS 24.4 +1.9 33.7 3 Mar 13.6 +2.0 2.7 30 May 142.6 131.4 average 109%
Dunedoo Post Office 26.2 +2.2 36.8 3 Mar 12.0 +1.9 -2.6 30 May 108.9 138.6 average 79%
Central Western Slopes (South) (district 65)
Cowra Airport AWS 25.2 +1.6 37.4 3 Mar 10.6 +2.0 1.2 25 May 131.4 114.1 average 115%
Dubbo Airport AWS 26.4 +1.9 37.5 3 Mar 12.1 +1.7 -0.9 25 May 96.6 132.0 average 73%
Forbes Airport AWS 25.9 +1.5 38.3 3 Mar 11.5 +1.9 1.5 29 May 115.0 102.9 average 112%
Parkes Airport AWS 25.8 +2.0 37.4 12 Mar 11.4 +2.0 0.6 30 May 133.6 131.7 average 101%
Wellington (D&J Rural) 26.3 +1.8 37.2 3 Mar 11.4 +1.7 -1.3 30 May 119.9 142.3 average 84%
Metropolitan (East) (district 66)
Bankstown Airport AWS 26.0 +2.5 35.8 6 Apr 13.6 +0.8 3.4 25 May 58.6 251.0 v low 23%
Canterbury Racecourse AWS 25.0 +1.8 34.5 6 Apr 13.3 +0.5 3.3 29 May 175.0 263.9 low 66%
Holsworthy Aerodrome AWS 25.2   35.1 6 Apr 13.0   3.6 25 May 105.2
Parramatta North (Masons Drive) 25.5 +2.0 35.2 6 Apr 13.8 +0.9 4.0 30 May 86.8 269.8 v low 32%
Sydney (Observatory Hill) 24.8 +2.6 34.2 6 Apr 16.6 +2.0 7.3 30 May 355.4 377.6 average 94%
Sydney Airport AMO 25.1 +2.3 34.7 6 Apr 16.4 +2.2 7.4 30 May 249.2 322.4 average 77%
Sydney Harbour (Wedding Cake West) 23.0 +1.1 30.3 6 Apr 17.5 +1.1 8.9 30 May
Sydney Olympic Park AWS (Archery Centre) 25.6   35.1 6 Apr 14.5   4.3 30 May 111.8
Terrey Hills AWS 23.6 +1.6 32.2 6 Apr 15.1 +1.5 5.7 30 May 152.0 307.6 low 49%
Metropolitan (West) (district 67)
Badgerys Creek AWS 26.3 +2.6 36.0 6 Apr 12.3 +0.9 0.9 30 May 53.8 169.7 low 32%
Horsley Park Equestrian Centre AWS 26.0 +2.5 35.8 6 Apr 13.5 +0.9 1.0 30 May 47.4 196.6 v low 24%
Penrith Lakes AWS 26.7 +2.4 36.6 6 Apr 14.2 +1.2 2.0 30 May 36.2 159.2 lowest 23%
Prospect Reservoir 25.9 +2.5 35.7 6 Apr 13.8 +0.8 2.7 30 May 62.5 243.2 v low 26%
Richmond RAAF 26.8 +3.0 36.6 6 Apr 12.2 +0.6 -2.1 30 May 25.6 178.7 lowest 14%
Illawarra (district 68)
Albion Park (Wollongong Airport) 24.3 +1.4 32.4 6 Apr 13.4 +1.3 5.4 14 May
Bellambi AWS 23.0 +1.1 29.2 2 Apr 16.6 +1.0 8.0 30 May 268.6 303.0 average 89%
Camden Airport AWS 26.1 +2.4 36.3 6 Apr 11.7 +0.8 -0.7 30 May 68.2 210.6 v low 32%
Campbelltown (Mount Annan) 26.2   35.6 6 Apr 12.2   2.6 30 May 55.4 186.0 v low 30%
High Range AWS (Wanganderry) 20.3   31.8 9 Mar 11.1   0.6 30 May 93.6
Jervis Bay (Point Perpendicular) 22.3 +1.2 30.7 6 Apr 16.3 +1.2 8.0 30 May 374.4 381.9 average 98%
Kiama (Bombo Headland) 23.1 +1.4 30.4 6 Apr 16.6 +1.3 9.0 30 May 128.4
Moss Vale AWS 21.0 +2.3 33.0 9 Mar 10.2 +2.0 -2.4 30 May 88.6 171.7 low 52%
Nowra RAN Air Station AWS 24.0 +1.6 34.6 6 Apr 13.5 +1.4 5.4 30 May 112.4 219.0 low 51%
South Coast (district 69)
Bega AWS 23.8 +1.7 34.2 9 Mar 10.5 +1.2 0.6 3 May 104.4 148.2 average 70%
Braidwood Racecourse AWS 21.4 +2.1 33.4 7 Mar 8.0 +1.9 -6.8 30 May 73.8 142.5 v low 52%
Green Cape AWS 21.6 +1.2 28.1 2 Apr 15.4 +1.2 9.3 28 May 94.8 152.6 low 62%
Merimbula Airport AWS 22.7 +1.3 28.5 2 Mar 11.8 +1.2 3.4 3 May 148.8 192.8 average 77%
Montague Island Lighthouse 21.8 +1.5 27.2 2 Apr 16.7 +1.6 10.6 30 May 155.6 255.8 low 61%
Moruya Airport AWS 23.5 +1.8 35.4 6 Apr 12.1 +1.4 0.1 29 May 80.8 164.8 low 49%
Moruya Heads Pilot Station 22.7 +1.4 34.0 6 Apr 14.0 +1.8 5.0 29 May 92.2 276.1 v low 33%
Narooma (Marine Rescue) 22.5 +1.6 30.0 2 Apr 14.1 +1.3 6.2 25 May 158.5 262.0 low 60%
Nerriga AWS 22.0   34.0 7 Mar 9.0   -2.8 30 May 48.8
Ulladulla AWS 22.5 +1.2 34.5 6 Apr 15.5 +1.5 8.3 30 May 191.6 300.0 low 64%
Southern Tablelands (Goulburn-Monaro) (district 70)
Bombala (Therry Street) 21.3 +2.7 34.7 6 Mar 6.6 +1.3 -4.4 18 May 134.6 149.2 average 90%
Bombala AWS 20.1 +2.2 34.5 5 Mar 6.6 +1.2 -4.9 18 May 114.4 129.3 average 88%
Canberra Airport 23.0   35.5 5 Mar 8.5   -3.9 29 May 82.8
Cooma Airport AWS 20.1 +2.0 32.5 7 Mar 5.3 +1.4 -9.7 30 May 96.4 115.7 average 83%
Cooma Visitors Centre 21.7 +2.2 34.1 7 Mar 5.1 +0.8 -7.6 30 May 72.8 127.7 low 57%
Goulburn Airport AWS 21.9 +2.1 34.7 3 Mar 8.0 +2.0 -5.3 30 May 74.6 97.7 average 76%
Goulburn TAFE 21.9 +2.0 34.5 3 Mar 9.8 +1.9 -2.0 30 May 86.2 142.8 low 60%
Mount Ginini AWS 13.4 +1.6 25.8 7 Mar 5.5 +1.6 -3.5 29 May 176.8 196.6 average 90%
Taralga Post Office 21.0 +2.5 33.5 9 Mar 8.0 +1.6 -4.5 30 May 130.9 184.8 average 71%
Tuggeranong (Isabella Plains) AWS 22.5 +1.6 34.8 5 Mar 8.6 +1.7 -4.5 29 May 98.2 108.7 average 90%
Southern Tablelands (Snowy Mountains) (district 71)
Perisher Valley AWS 12.8   25.3 8 Mar 3.0   -8.0 30 May 495.6
Thredbo AWS 10.5 +1.4 23.2 6 Mar 3.2 +1.6 -6.1 30 May 484.0 340.6 high 142%
Thredbo Village 15.9 +1.9 28.9 6 Mar 4.1 +2.1 -6.1 30 May 442.2 373.7 average 118%
Southwest Slopes (South) (district 72)
Albury Airport AWS 24.9 +2.4 38.5 7 Mar 11.1 +2.3 0.5 29 May 154.0 131.3 high 117%
Cabramurra SMHEA AWS 14.3 +1.4 28.4 8 Mar 7.3 +1.6 -2.8 30 May 290.0 243.1 average 119%
Hume Reservoir 24.3 +2.5 38.1 5 Mar 12.8 +2.5 2.9 29 May 161.0 157.3 average 102%
Khancoban AWS 23.5 +2.0 37.4 8 Mar 9.0 +1.8 -0.4 31 May 181.4 181.3 average 100%
Tumbarumba Post Office 22.0 +2.0 35.5 8 Mar 7.8 +2.4 -3.2 31 May 255.2 215.0 high 119%
Wagga Wagga AMO 24.9 +2.4 37.9 6 Mar 11.6 +2.1 1.3 25 May 154.0 136.5 average 113%
Southwest Slopes (North) (district 73)
Burrinjuck Dam 23.8 +2.8 36.8 5 Mar 10.9 +1.1 1.0 30 May 219.5 206.2 average 106%
Cootamundra Airport 24.1 +1.7 36.5 6 Mar 9.5 +2.0 -1.0 31 May 157.6 118.3 high 133%
Grenfell (Manganese Rd) 24.3 +1.5 37.1 3 Mar 10.5 +0.9 -0.2 31 May 153.5 144.9 average 106%
Temora Airport 25.4 +1.9 38.2 2 Mar 10.4 +1.9 1.0 31 May 107.4 83.6 high 128%
Young Airport 24.3 +1.8 36.8 5 Mar 8.9 +2.0 -1.3 25 May 160.6 112.4 high 143%
Riverina (East) (district 74)
Corowa Airport 25.6 +2.8 39.5 7 Mar 11.7 +2.7 1.4 31 May 147.4 122.1 high 121%
Deniliquin Airport AWS 25.3 +1.9 41.2 7 Mar 12.0 +2.5 2.1 31 May 121.0 75.9 v high 159%
Narrandera Airport AWS 26.0 +2.5 39.5 6 Mar 12.0 +2.0 1.0 31 May 104.8 105.9 average 99%
Tocumwal Airport 25.0 +1.9 40.6 7 Mar 11.8 +1.8 2.1 31 May 113.1 108.3 average 104%
Yanco Agricultural Institute 25.8 +1.9 39.6 5 Mar 13.5 +2.0 2.9 29 May 147.4 99.0 high 149%
Riverina (West) (district 75)
Griffith Airport AWS 26.3 +2.4 39.8 2 Mar 12.4 +1.9 1.4 29 May 99.8 100.7 average 99%
Hay Airport AWS 26.6   41.7 5 Mar 12.5   1.3 31 May 73.0
Hillston Airport 26.6 +2.3 40.0 2 Mar 12.2 +1.2 0.4 31 May 143.2 92.9 high 154%
Lake Cargelligo Airport 26.4 +1.2 38.7 8 Mar 13.2 +2.2 2.8 29 May 109.4 103.1 average 106%
Offshore Islands (district 200)
Lord Howe Island Aero 24.6 +1.4 27.7 19 Mar 19.5 +1.4 12.4 15 May 235.6 419.1 lowest 56%
Norfolk Island Aero 24.1 +1.5 27.3 1 Apr 19.3 +1.6 15.2 19 May

Notes

The Seasonal climate summary lists the main features of the weather in New South Wales using the most timely and accurate information available on the date of publication; it will generally not be updated. Later information, including data that has had greater opportunity for quality control, will be presented in the Monthly Weather Review.

A climate summary is generally published on the first working day of each month.

This statement has been prepared based on information available at 11 am on Wednesday 1 June 2016. Some checks have been made on the data, but it is possible that results will change as new information becomes available.

Averages for individual sites are long-term means based on observations from all available years of record, which vary widely from site to site. They are not shown for sites with less than 10 years of record, as they cannot then be calculated reliably.
The median is sometimes more representative than the mean of long-term average rain.

The Rank indicates how rainfall this time compares with the climate record for the site, based on the decile ranking (very low rainfall is in decile 1, low in decile 2 or 3, average in decile 4 to 7, high in decile 8 or 9 and very high is in decile 10).
The Fraction of average shows how much rain has fallen this time as a percentage of the long-term mean.

The ACORN-SAT dataset is used for temperature area averages.

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