Australian Water Information Dictionary

Standards: National Industry Guidelines for hydrometric monitoring

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A point velocity meter that uses two acoustic transducers, each acting as transmitters and receivers for the purpose of water velocity measurement, when undertaking a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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A family of acoustic based instrumentation used to measure water velocities and water depths during a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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A point velocity meter that uses a single acoustic transducer as a transmitter and separate dedicated transducers as receivers for the purpose of water velocity measurement, when undertaking a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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A family of acoustic based instrumentation used for continuous in-situ measurement of water velocities.

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acoustic Doppler current meter

A point velocity meter that uses two acoustic transducers, each acting as transmitters and receivers for the purpose of water velocity measurement, when undertaking a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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acoustic Doppler current profiler

A family of acoustic based instrumentation used to measure water velocities and water depths during a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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acoustic Doppler velocimeter

A point velocity meter that uses a single acoustic transducer as a transmitter and separate dedicated transducers as receivers for the purpose of water velocity measurement, when undertaking a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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acoustic Doppler velocity meter

A family of acoustic based instrumentation used for continuous in-situ measurement of water velocities.

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Australian Height Datum

The datum that sets mean sea level as zero elevation. Mean sea level was determined from observations recorded by 30 tide gauges around the coast of the Australian continent for the period 1966–1968. See Geoscience Australia for further information.

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A hydraulic structure (e.g. weir, flume or gate) installed in an open channel where in most cases the discharge can be derived from the measured upstream water level.

Note: The structure is an artificial reduction of the cross-sectional area in the channel, where part of the upstream total head is converted into kinetic energy used to obtain critical streamflow.

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The datum that sets mean sea level as zero elevation. Mean sea level was determined from observations recorded by 30 tide gauges around the coast of the Australian continent for the period 1966–1968. See Geoscience Australia for further information.

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The deflection of waves or particles through angles greater than 90 degrees by an obstacle.

Source: © Macquarie Dictionary Fourth Edition, 2005, Macquarie Dictionary Publishers

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Water backed-up or retarded in its course as compared with its normal or natural condition of flow.

Source: USGS, viewed 14 June 2012.

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The distance from the transducers of an ADCP in which no measurement is taken. Also known as the “blank”.

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Acoustic method used to measure boat speed and direction by computing the Doppler shift of sound reflected from the stream bed relative to the ADCP.

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bottom tracking

Acoustic method used to measure boat speed and direction by computing the Doppler shift of sound reflected from the stream bed relative to the ADCP.

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The process of comparing the response of a measuring device with a calibrator or a measuring standard over the measurement range.

Note: Calibration may or may not include adjustment.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 7.17. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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The level or physical location at which a stream stops flowing, the lowest point in the low flow control.

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Physical properties of a cross-section or a reach of an open channel, either natural or artificial, that govern the relation between stage and discharge at a location in the open channel.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 1.91. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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The section of a stream is the section normal to the mean direction of flow bounded by the free surface and wetted perimeter of the stream.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 1.58. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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cease to flow

The level or physical location at which a stream stops flowing, the lowest point in the low flow control.

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Cubic metres per second (m³/s). International System of Units (SI Units) of measure for instantaneous discharge (rate unit).

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Instrument for measuring water velocity.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 2.56. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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A point, plane, or surface to which systems of measurement are referred or related to one another.

Source: Geoscience Australia, viewed 10th July 2013.

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To prepare an instrument to retrieve data, then take measurements in contact with the water in its data retrieval mode.

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The vertical distance below the free water surface of a stream to a point of reference, e.g. a measuring instrument, or the bottom of the stream at any point on a cross-section.

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A volume of water at a known distance and orientation from the transducer.

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Differential Global Positioning System

An enhancement to Global Positioning System (GPS) that uses a network of fixed ground based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions.

The underlying premise of differential GPS is that any two receivers that are relatively close together will experience similar atmospheric errors. DGPS requires that a GPS receiver be set up on a precisely known location. This GPS receiver is the base or reference station. The base station receiver calculates its position based on satellite signals and compares this location to the known location. The difference is applied to the GPS data recorded by the second GPS receiver, which is known as the roving receiver. The corrected information can be applied to data from the roving receiver in real-time in the field using radio signals or through post-processing after data capture using special processing software.

Source: ESRI, viewed 17 April 2013. Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

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An enhancement to Global Positioning System (GPS) that uses a network of fixed ground based reference stations to broadcast the difference between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions.

The underlying premise of differential GPS (DGPS) is that any two receivers that are relatively close together will experience similar atmospheric errors. DGPS requires that a GPS receiver be set up on a precisely known location. This GPS receiver is the base or reference station. The base station receiver calculates its position based on satellite signals and compares this location to the known location. The difference is applied to the GPS data recorded by the second GPS receiver, which is known as the roving receiver. The corrected information can be applied to data from the roving receiver in real-time in the field using radio signals or through post-processing after data capture using special processing software.

Source: ESRI, viewed 17 April 2013. Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

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Volume of liquid flowing through a cross-section in a unit time.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 1.37. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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A column of depth cells equivalent to a vertical in conventional current meter gauging. An ensemble or profile may refer to a single measurement of the water column or an average of pings or profile measurements.

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A part of the physical environment with properties that can be observed; these include natural features such as rivers, aquifers and the atmosphere, and human defined or constructed features such as channels, irrigation districts and urban supply areas.

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full scale deflection

The full range of observations which can be recorded by an instrument.

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The full range of observations which can be recorded by an instrument.

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The water level at an established water monitoring site.

Synonym: stage

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Physical measurement of instantaneous streamflow to develop the stage-discharge relationship.

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Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994.

Source: Geoscience Australia, viewed 4 April 2013.

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Data string that provides geographic position information determined by the GPS.

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A system of radio-emitting and -receiving satellites used for determining positions on the earth. The orbiting satellites transmit signals that allow a Global Positioning System receiver anywhere on earth to calculate its own location through trilateration. Developed and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, the system is used in navigation, mapping, surveying, and other applications in which precise positioning is necessary.

Source: ESRI GIS Dictionary, viewed 15 April 2013, Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

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Global Positioning System

A system of radio-emitting and -receiving satellites used for determining positions on the earth. The orbiting satellites transmit signals that allow a Global Positioning System receiver anywhere on earth to calculate its own location through trilateration. Developed and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense, the system is used in navigation, mapping, surveying, and other applications in which precise positioning is necessary.

Source: ESRI GIS Dictionary, viewed 15 April 2013, Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

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horizontal dilution of precision

A measure of the geometric quality of a GPS satellite configuration in the sky. Horizontal Dilution of Precision is a factor in determining the relative accuracy of a horizontal position. The smaller the dilution of precision number, the better the geometry.

Source: ESRI GIS Dictionary, viewed 4 April 2013, Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

Related: PDOP

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A measure of the geometric quality of a GPS satellite configuration in the sky. Horizontal Dilution of Precision HDOP is a factor in determining the relative accuracy of a horizontal position. The smaller the dilution of precision number, the better the geometry.

Source: ESRI GIS Dictionary, viewed 4 April 2013, Copyright © 1995–2013 Esri.

Related: PDOP

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The computation of discharge using measured water velocities that are an index or predictor of the mean channel velocity.

Note: More than one variable may be used in the creation of a rating if this would improve the accuracy of the overall rating.

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International Organization for Standardization

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index velocity rating

The computation of discharge using measured water velocities that are an index or predictor of the mean channel velocity.

Note: More than one variable may be used in the creation of a rating if this would improve the accuracy of the overall rating.

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Indicates an allowable option.

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A set of operations required to ensure that measuring equipment conforms to the requirements for its intended use.

Source: ISO 9000:2005

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The science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology.

Source: Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, viewed 4 April 2013.

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Map Grid of Australia 1994

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The abbreviation for megalitres per day. A unit of measure for instantaneous discharge (rate unit).

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A place where observations of the environment are made; typically a physical location where sensors are used to measure the properties of one or more features of the environment (e.g. depth of a river and temperature of the atmosphere).

Related: feature

Synonym: site

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positional dilution of precision

A measure of the geometric quality of a GPS satellite configuration in the sky. A PDOP value measures the possible error in both the horizontal and vertical plane (altitude).

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A series of acoustic pulses, of a given frequency, transmitted by an acoustic doppler current profiler.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 5.84. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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A family of hand held acoustic based instrumentation used to measure water velocities and water depths during a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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A measure of the geometric quality of a GPS satellite configuration in the sky. A PDOP value measures the possible error in both the horizontal and vertical plane (altitude).

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The gauge plate which shows gauge zero elevation as described in AS 3778.2.2:2001 section 5.2.2.3.

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The velocity distribution of a stream cross-section.

Notes:
(1) Ensembles are measured representations of the profile.

(2) When used as a verb, profile refers to an instrument measuring stream velocity at defined positions in the cross-section.

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Point Velocity Meter

A family of hand held acoustic based instrumentation used to measure water velocities and water depths during a discrete discharge measurement (gauging).

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A relationship between variables.

Related: stage-discharge relationship

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The surveyed level of a location relative to a datum (after survey calculations have been completed).

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reduced level

The surveyed level of a location relative to a datum (after survey calculations have been completed).

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signal to noise ratio

A measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise.

Synonym: SNR

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A portion of a cross-section for which velocity is measured or unmeasured.

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Oscillation of the surface of a liquid caused mainly by winds and variations in atmospheric pressure.

Source: AS 3778.1—2009 Clause 2.53. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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Indicates a mandatory requirement.

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The displayed route undertaken by an ADCP during a measured transect.

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Indicates a recommendation.

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A measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise.

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A place where observations of the environment are made; typically a physical location where sensors are used to measure the properties of one or more features of the environment (e.g. depth of a river and temperature of the atmosphere).

Synonym: monitoring site

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signal to noise ratio

A measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise. It is defined as the ratio of signal power to the noise power. A ratio higher than 1:1 indicates more signal than noise.

Synonym: S/N

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A single value check of a measuring instrument or system to confirm that it is within expected tolerance.

A series of spot checks may provide sufficient evidence to confirm, or modify, the relationship between recorded values and independently measured values.

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The water level, typically measured at a water monitoring site.

Synonym: gauge height

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The relationship between the gauge height and the cross-sectional area of the stream.

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Curve, equation or table that expresses the relation between the stage and the discharge in an open channel at a given cross-section, for a given condition of steady, rising or falling stage.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 1.83. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

Related: rating

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An instrument used to perform calibration tests of monitoring equipment.

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Those physical characteristics of a specific stream location that determine the stage-discharge relationship.

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The flow of water in streams, rivers and other channels.

Synonym: flow

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Root sum squared combination of instrument error and reference error. Tolerance is calculated as Tolerance = ±√(A²+ B²) where:

A = instrument error from manufacturer’s specifications confirmed by calibration (e.g. ±3 mm for this range); and

B = ability

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Single pass across a river, lake or estuary.

Notes:
(1) a transect may be described as a collection of ensembles.

(2) one transect may constitute a single measurement of discharge.

Source: AS3778.1—2009 Clause 5.86. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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An American science organisation that provides impartial information on the health of U.S. ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten the U.S., the natural resources the U.S. relies on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help the U.S. provide timely, relevant, and useable information.

Source: Modified from USGS, viewed 27 April 2013.

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United States Geological Survey

An American science organisation that provides impartial information on the health of U.S. ecosystems and environment, the natural hazards that threaten the U.S., the natural resources the U.S. relies on, the impacts of climate and land-use change, and the core science systems that help the U.S. provide timely, relevant, and useable information.

Source: Modified from USGS, viewed 27 April 2013.

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A check of a developed stage-discharge relationship, including gaugings, survey data and other relevant metadata.

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Line on which velocity measurements or depth measurements are made.

Source: AS 3778.1—2009 Clause 2.4. Reproduced with permission from SAI Global Ltd under Licence 1307-c151. This standard can be purchased online at http://www.saiglobal.com

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GPS data string that provides the velocity relative to the ground, including direction and speed.

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WDTF is an XML data transfer format designed to support the water industry to share and deliver water data to the Bureau as required under the Water Regulations 2008.

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The elevation of the water surface at a particular time and date, measured relative to a specified datum.

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A river, creek or other natural watercourse (whether modified or not) in which water is contained or flows (whether permanently or from time to time); and includes:

(i) a dam or reservoir that collects water flowing in a watercourse; and

(ii) a lake or wetland through which water flows; and

(iii) a channel into which the water of a watercourse has been diverted; and

(iv) part of a watercourse; and

(v) an estuary through which water flows

Source: Water Act 2007 Part 1 Section 4

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Water Data Transfer Format

WDTF is an XML data transfer format designed to support the water industry to share and deliver water data to the Bureau as required under the Water Regulations 2008.

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World Geodetic System 1984.

For most practical purposes GDA94 and WGS84 coordinates can be considered the same and no transformation is required.

Source: Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping, viewed 3 May 2013.

Related: GDA94

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